Anitha Nursing Home

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Diagnostic Services

Diagnostic Services

We Specialize In


An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. The x-ray machine sends individual x-ray particles, called photons. These particles pass through the body and a computer or special film is used to record the images that are created.

A first in Hyderabad, this equipment provides for all types of X-Rays including special examinations such as Barium Studies, Intravenuious Pyleography as well as invasive investigations like Peripheral Angiograms and Trans-Hepatic Cholangiograms. The digital X-Ray not only helps the doctor by providing superior image quality but also ensures the patient receives minimum radiation dose.


The Electrocardiogram or ECG is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Patches (electrodes) are placed on the chest, arms and legs to detect the information.

The test is used to:

Assess your heart rate and rhythm

Diagnose poor blood flow to the heart muscle (ischemia)

Diagnose a heart attack

Diagnose abnormalities of your heart such as heart enlargement or abnormal electrical conduction

Preparing for the test:

Avoid skin creams and lotions the day of the test. They prevent the patches from sticking to the skin.

Avoid full-length hosiery, as the patches need to be placed directly on the legs.

Wear a shirt that can be easily adjusted or removed, as the patches need to be placed directly on the chest and arms.

What to expect during the test:

A technician will attach 10 sticky patches (electrodes) to the skin of your chest, arms and legs. Men may need to have chest hair shaved to allow a better connection. You will lie flat while the computer creates a picture of the electrical activity produced by your heart.

It takes about 10 minutes to attach the patches and complete the test, but the actual recording takes only a few seconds.

Your ECG will be kept on file for comparison with future ECG recordings.

U/S Scan

Ultrasound can be very useful as a first line investigation; it is typically non-invasive, painless and does not involve ionizing radiation. It is inexpensive when compared to MRI or CT.

The Ultrasound Examination:

Ultrasound is a very safe and well tolerated examination very good at looking at certain organs and diseases/problems associated with those organs. It is a painless examination using soundwaves, not x-ray, with no known harmful effects to humans. You will probably be asked to prepare for your scan by either fasting or attending with a full bladder (depending on the examination) and to wear loose fitting clothing.

In most cases you will lie on a medical couch and the sonographer will apply a water based gel to the area to be scanned and then pass a probe over the skin but for some pelvic female examinations an internal scan (vaginal scan) may also be suggested. A chaperone is available for all intimate scans and you are also free to bring someone with you if you wish.


The biochemistry section is a new generation laboratory, fully equipped with the latest state of the art technology. Analytes of serum and other body fluids are measured like routine and specific assays of proteins in serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid, including specialized tests like oligoclonal protein banding. The laboratory accepts stat requests and aims for a rapid turn-around time on all samples.

This laboratory also applies mass spectroscopy for rapid detection of a broader array of toxic agents and drugs than possible with less advanced technology. The monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine and immunoglobulins is also done. Mass Spectrophometry also permits analysis of renal calculi within 30 minutes. Immunology section performs hormonal and other non-infectious assays using Chemiluminiscent Immunoassay (CLIA) Fluorescence intensity Luminescence, Fluorescence polarisation, and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Of special note are the fetal lung reactivity profiles and alpha fetoprotein assays in serum and amniotic fluid for neural tube defect screening and tumor marker studies.

Genetics: Complete HLA typing for transplantation, tests for genetic mapping of diseases, etc. are performed in the Genetics section of the laboratory. Prenatal and/or carrier studies for inherited disorders (spinal muscular atrophy, cystic fibrosis, frontotemporal dementia, etc), and genetic profiles of malignancies are also analyzed.


Microbiology section of the laboratory provides state-of-art services for diagnosis of infectious diseases - bacterial, mycobacterium, and fungal, parasitic, and viral infections.

Latest Technologies in Laboratory:

In addition to conventional techniques, the lab is well equipped with automated systems that perform blood culture and mycobacterium culture. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility are also performed by automated system reducing the turnaround time of reporting.

Serological investigations to determine the antibody/antigens of HIV, HBV, HCV, Dengue, Leptospira, and Cryptococcus etc. are performed besides routine tests like Widal, RA, ASO etc.

The department assists in providing education on infection control practices for healthcare workers. Infection control policies on waste disposal, use of disinfectants and antibiotics have been formulated. The department also provides relevant data in monitoring healthcare associated infections. Constant surveillance is done on infection control practices in the entire hospital in order to control the infection rate as well as prevent outbreaks.


The Hematology section of the laboratory is very well equipped with state-of-the-the-art automated instruments.

Highly Sophisticated Automated Cell Counters

Even routine blood counts are performed on highly sophisticated automated cell counters which provide numerous parameters on every single sample. An exhaustive test menu for the detection of bleeding disorders as well as all kinds of hypercoagulability disorders (e.g. thrombophilia) is offered.

The Laboratory Strives To Combine The Best Of Highly Specialized Doctors And Skilled Technicians.The laboratory has systems in place to diagnose various congenital and acquired hemolytic anemias which are supported by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, useful in the detection of abnormal hemoglobin. The laboratory is also equipped with a Flow Cytometer which is used for the diagnosis and categorization of various hematological malignancies like leukemia and lymphoma as well as diagnosis of rare hematological disorders like PNH.

Quality control procedures are an important daily activity. The laboratory strives to combine the best of highly specialized doctors, skilled technicians and automation, to provide the best for the patient, in terms of accurate and precise results, within a reasonable timeframe.


Cytology is the study of cells for the primary purpose of detecting cancer. A range of normal, benign, dysplastic, and malignant cells as well as some infectious diseases are diagnosed. Tests range from routine screening of GYN pap smears, to diagnostic fine needle aspiration biopsies of tumors in any body site. Samples typically are collected by scrapings, brushings, washings, fine needle aspiration and tapping of body fluids.

The cells are processed onto slides, stained, and viewed under light microscopy by a cytotechnologist. A board-certified pathologist reviews all non-gynecological cases, and abnormal gynecological smears. The technologist or pathologist evaluating the sample will focus attention to cellular features that include: the nucleus, cytoplasm, intracellular relationships, and background characteristics. All findings are correlated with clinical history, diagnosis, and radiologic findings when available.

Clinical Pathology

Clinical pathology covers a wide range of laboratory functions and is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Clinical pathologists are healthcare providers with special training who often direct all of the special divisions of the lab. This may include the blood bank, clinical chemistry and biology, toxicology, hematology, immunology and serology, and microbiology. Clinical pathology also involves maintenance of information systems, research, and quality control.

What does a clinical pathologist do?

A clinical pathologist looks at blood, urine, and other body fluid specimens under a microscope, or with other diagnostic tools, to observe levels of certain chemicals and/or other substances in the body. A diagnosis or determination to conduct further study is then made based on the test results.

Enzyme Studies

Cardiac enzyme studies measure the levels of enzymes and proteins that are linked with injury of the heart muscle. These include the enzyme creatine kinase (CK), and the proteins troponin I (TnI) and troponin T (TnT). Low levels of these enzymes and proteins are normally found in your blood, but if your heart muscle is injured, such as from a heart attack, the enzymes and proteins leak out of damaged heart muscle cells, and their levels in the bloodstream rise.

Because some of these enzymes and proteins are also found in other body tissues, their levels in the blood may rise when those other tissues are damaged. Cardiac enzyme studies must always be compared with your symptoms, your physical examination findings, and electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) results.

Hormonal Studies

Hormone testing is also called a hormonal study. It helps to identify hormonal imbalances that may impair your fertility. Our clinicians perform these studies because hormones control every step in achieving pregnancy, from the recruitment and development of an egg, to the ovulation and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Because each hormone plays a role in conception, your body must produce a specific amount at a precise time in your menstrual cycle in order for conception to occur naturally. Hormonal studies measure the levels of certain hormones produced by your body during your cycle.


Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a diagnostic procedure where a needle is inserted into your body, and a small amount of tissue is sucked out for examination under a microscope. Fine needle aspirations are often performed when a suspicious lump is found, for example a breast lump or enlarged lymph node, or if an abnormality is detected on an imaging test such as x-ray, ultrasound or mammography. Fine needle aspiration is a relatively non-invasive, less painful and quicker method when compared to other methods of tissue sampling such as surgical biopsy.

When it is required?

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is ordered by your health care provider when a lump is discovered during examination or during sonography, and your physician wants to determine what the nature of the lump is. In the past, the only way to do this was to have you go to the hospital and undergo a surgical procedure that may be painful, might cause scarring, had more complications, and involved a longer period of anxiety while waiting for the results.

With the use of FNAC, all this is unnecessary in most cases. We can now sample your lump using only a thin small needle which will leave a mark no bigger than a needle stick from a blood test. Furthermore, this test will most often allow us to make a diagnosis of your lump within 3 to 4 days of the test. Fine needle aspirations may be performed on palpable lumps (lumps which can be felt), or impalpable lumps which have been detected on ultrasound or x-ray.

Once the skin has been cleaned at the needle entry point, the lump is then examined. If the lump can be felt, your doctor or surgeon will palpate the lump to position it for the needle. If the lump cannot be felt, imaging may be required to find the exact location. This can be done with ultrasound, where the surgeon will watch the needle on the ultrasound monitor and guide it to the area, or with a stereotactic mammogram (for the breast) which uses two mammograms at different angles and a computer to create exact coordinates. The type of needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy has a hollow interior and is much finer than a regular needle used to draw blood.

Bone Marrow Study

Just like any other organ, even the well-being of your bone marrow is detectable only with a Bone Marrow Test. It is not a common test and so most probably, you may not be familiar with it. So first, you need to understand what this test implies and then you may further read everything about it!

A bone marrow analysis helps understanding the health status of the bone marrow in the body. The main reason for performing this analysis is to check that whether the marrow is releasing normal amount of blood cells or not. Now you must be wondering what a bone marrow actually is? Well, it is a sponge-like tissue present inside the bone. It includes stem cells that advances into three forms of blood cells, which the body needs for performing various functions:

Platelets that prevent bleeding.

ite Blood Cells that fight infection.

Red Blood Cells that carry oxygen in the body.

This analysis helps find out blood disorders and even to detect cancer or any other severe infection.


Endoscopy is the investigation of body cavities and organs by means the insertion of rigid or flexible tubes of varying diameter. At the leading end of these tubes there is found the usual arrangement of a light source, a means of conveying images to the operator and an access channel.

The access channel allows insertion of air, fluids or instruments into the body or the removal of gas and liquids by suction. Many branches of medicine and surgery use this useful tool to investigate and treat their patients.

Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

The general surgeon will often perform endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The procedures are vital for accurate diagnosis of many conditions of the gut and with improved technological advances and with specialized skills surgeons are able to carry out an ever increasing array of therapeutic interventions that in the past would have required more major surgery.

Investigations are carried out both with and without sedation and often without the need for full bowel preparation.


2D Echocardiography or 2D Echo of heart is a test in which ultrasound technique is used to take pictures of heart. It displays a cross sectional ‘slice’ of the beating heart, showing chambers, valves and the major blood vessels of heart.

‘Doppler’ is a special element of this ultrasound exam that assesses flow of blood in the heart.

How is 2D Echo done?

Patient is made to change in a front open robe and a colorless gel is applied to the chest area. Then he is asked to lay on his left side as the technician moves the transducer across the various parts of his chest to get specific/desired views of the heart.

Instructions may also be given to the patient to breathe slowly or to hold it. This helps in getting superior quality pictures. The images are viewed on the monitor and recorded on paper, video or DVD. The cardiologist later reviews and interprets the recordings.

What it detects?

Echocardiography is a significant tool in providing the physician important information about heart on the following:

Size of the chambers, volume and the thickness of the walls

Pumping function, if it is normal or reduced to a mild/severe degree

Valve function - structure, thickness and movement of heart’s valves

Volume status as low blood pressure may occur as a result of poor heart function

Pericardial effusion (fluid in the pericardium - the sac that surrounds the heart), congenital heart disease, blood clots or tumours, abnormal elevation of pressure within the lungs etc.


The histopathology section of the laboratory provides services for routine and specialized processing of all surgical and cytological (both gynecological and non-gynecological) specimens.

Intraoperative Rapid Diagnosis:

The Cryostat which prepares a “frozen section” is available for rapid intraoperative diagnosis. This facility is also used for identification of enzymes and fat in tissues, after appropriate histochemical staining. Fluorescence microscopy is offered for specialized studies on kidney and skin biopsies, as well as identification of Her-2/neu and EGFR by FISH technique.

Telepathology Services And Molecular Pathology Techniques On Solid Tumours To Be Introduced In The Near Future.

Immunohistochemical techniques are performed on Benchmark XT, slide prep system, using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues, resulting in an identification of a wide range of intracellular antigens, analysis of hormone receptors, oncogenes, and assessment of predictive and prognostic markers of tumors.

All body fluids (including CSF of low volume and cellularity) are processed in a Cytospin, which prepares concentrated smears of good quality, facilitating in accurate diagnosis on microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is performed in the laboratory on superficial, palpable swellings and reported promptly, on a daily basis. Image-guided cytological aspirates of deep-seated lesions as well as Pap smears are also processed.

The Histopro Microwave processor is available for urgent processing of biopsies, improving the turn-around time and avoiding delay in treatment.